Medication Reconciliation Statistics
- Approximately 1.5 million preventable adverse drug events (ADEs) occur annually as a result of medication errors, at a cost of more than $3 billion per year5
- Approximately half of all hospital-related medication errors and 20% of all ADEs have been attributed to poor communication at the transitions and interfaces of care6,7
- The average hospitalized patient is subject to at least one medication error per day5
- ADEs account for 2.5% of estimated emergency department visits for all unintentional injuries and 6.7% of those leading to hospitalization8
- The occurrence of unintended medication discrepancies at the time of hospital admission ranges from 30% to 70%, as reported in two literature reviews9,10
- Results of the largest medication reconciliation study to date indicate that 36% of patients had medication errors at admission, of which 85% originated from the patient’s medication history11
- Strategies shown to reduce medication errors at transitions include pharmacist medication review at discharge12,13
- Pharmacist-provided medication therapy review and consultation in various settings resulted in reductions in physician visits, emergency department visits, hospitaldays, and overall health care costs4
- Medication reconciliation reduced discharge medication errors from 90% to 47% on a surgical unit and from 57% to 33% on a medical unit of a large academic medical center 12
1. Greenwald JL, Halasyamani LK, Greene J, et al. Making inpatient medication reconciliation patient centered, clinically relevant, and implementable: a consensus statement on key principles and necessary first steps. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2010;36:504-13.
2. Chen D, Burns A. Summary and Recommendations of ASHP-APhA Medication Reconciliation Initiative Workgroup Meeting, February 12, 2007. Available at: http://www.ashp.org/s_ashp/docs/files/MedRec_ASHP_APhA_Wkgrp_Mtg Summary.pdf. Accessed July 1, 2011.
3. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Pub. L. No. 111-148, §2702, 124 Stat (2010).
4. American Pharmacists Association. Medication Therapy Management in Pharmacy Practice: Core Elements of an MTM Service Model, Version 2.0. March 2008. Available at: http://www.pharmacist.com/AM/Template.cfm?Section =Pharmacists&TEMPLATE=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&CONTENTID=19013. Accessed July 1, 2011.
5. Institute of Medicine. Preventing Medication Errors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2007.
6. Barnsteiner JH. Medication reconciliation: transfer of medication information across settings: keeping it free from error. J Infus Nurs. 2005;28(2 suppl):31-6.
7. Rozich J, Roger R. Medication safety: one organization’s approach to the challenge. J Clin Outcomes Manag. 2001;8:27-34.
8. Budnitz DS, Pollock DA, Weidenbach KN, et al. National surveillance of emergency department visits for outpatient adverse drug events. JAMA. 2006;296:1858-66.
9. Cornish PL, Knowles SR, Marchesano R, et al. Unintended medication discrepancies at the time of hospital admission.
Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:424-9.
10. Gleason KM, Roszek JM, Sullivan C, et al. Reconciliation of discrepancies in medication histories and admission orders of newly hospitalized patients. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2004;61:1689-95.
11. Gleason KM, McDaniel MR, Feinglass J, et al. Results of the Medications At Transitions and Clinical Handoffs (MATCH) study: an analysis of medication reconciliation errors and risk factors at hospital admission. J Gen Intern Med. 2010;25:441-7.
12. Murphy EM, Oxencis CJ, Klauck JA, et al. Medication reconciliation at an academic medical center: implementation of a comprehensive program from admission to discharge. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2009;66:2126-31.
13. Schnipper JL, Kirwin JL, Cotugno MC, et al. Role of pharmacist counseling in preventing adverse drug events after hospitalization. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:565-71.